Another topic increasingly discussed in the OT security community is the security of our field equipment. The sensors through which we read process values and the actuators that control the valves in the production system. But if we would look at the automation functions in the power management systems we might add devices like IEDs and feeder relays. In this blog I focus on the instrumentation as used for controlling a refining processes, chemical processes, or oil and gas in general. The power management is an entirely different world, using different architectures and different instrumentation. Another area I don’t discuss are the wireless sensors used by technologies such as ISA 100 and WirelessHART. Another category I don’t discuss in this blog, are the actuators using a separate field unit to control the valve. The discussion in this blog focuses on architectures using either the traditional I/O or field bus concepts, which represent the majority of solutions used in the industry.
The first question I like to raise is when is a device secure, is this exclusively a feature of the intrinsic qualities of the device or do other aspects play a role? To explain I like to make an analogy with personal health. Am I considered not healthy because my personal resilience might be breached by a virus, toxic gas, fire, a bullet, or a car while crossing a zebra? I think when we consider health we accept that living is not a healthy exercise if we don’t protect the many vulnerabilities we have. We are continuously exposed by a wide range of attacks on our health. However we seem to accept our intrinsic vulnerabilities and choose to protect these by wearing protective masks, clothes, sometimes helmets and bullet free vests depending on the threat and the ways we are exposed. Where possible we mitigate the intrinsic vulnerabilities by having an operation or taking medicine, and sometimes we adapt our behavior by exercising more, eating less, and stop smoking. But I seldom have heard the statement “Life is an unhealthy affair”, though there are many arguments to support such a statement.
So why are people saying sensors are not secure? Do we have different requirements for a technical solution than the acceptance we seem to have of our own inadequacies? I would say certainly, when ever we develop something new we should try our best to establish functional perfection and nowadays we add to this resilience against cyber attacks. So any product development process should take cyber security into account, including threat modelling. And if the product is ready for release it should be tested and preferably certified for its resilience against cyber attacks.
But how about these hundreds of millions (if not billions) sensors in the field that sometimes do their task for decades and if they fail are replaced by identical copies to facilitate a fast recovery. Can we claim that these sensors are not secure, just because their intrinsic cyber security vulnerabilities exist? My personal opinion is that even an intrinsically vulnerable sensor can be secured when we analyze the cyber security hazards and control the sensor’s exposure. I would even extend this claim for embedded control equipment in general, it is the exposure that drives the insecurity once exposure is controlled we reduce the risk of becoming a victim of a cyber attack.
Some cyber security principles
Which elements play a role in exposure? If we look at exposure we need to differentiate between asset exposure and channel exposure. The asset here is the sensor, the channel is the communication protocol, for example the HART protocol or some other protocol when we discuss Foundation Fieldbus or Profibus or any of the many other protocols in use to communicate with sensors. Apart from this, in risk analysis we differentiate between static exposure as consequence of our design choices, and dynamic exposure as consequence of our maintenance (or rather lack of maintenance) activities. To measure exposure we generally consider a number of parameters.
One such parameter would be connectivity, if we would allow access to the sensor from the Internet it would certainly have a very high degree of exposure. We can grade exposure by assigning trust levels to security zones. The assets within the zone communicate with other assets in other zones, based on this we can grade connectivity and its contribution to increasing the likelihood of a specific cyber security hazard (threat) to happen. Another factor that plays a role is complexity of the asset, in general the more complex an asset the more vulnerable it becomes because the chance on software errors grows with the number of code lines. A third parameter would be accessibility, the level of control over access to the asset also determines its exposure. If there is nothing stopping an attacker to access and make a change in the sensor, and there is no registration that this access and change occurred, the exposure is higher.
If we would have a vault with a pile of euros (my vendor neutrality objective doesn’t imply any regional preferences) and would put this vault with an open door at the local bus stop, it would soon be empty. The euros would be very exposed. Apart from assessing the assets we also need to assess the channel, the communication protocols. Is it an end to end authenticated connection, is it clear text or encrypted, or is it an inbound connection or strictly outbound, who initiates the communication, these type of factors determine channel exposure.
We can reduce exposure by adding countermeasures, such as segmentation or more general the selection of a specific architecture, adding write protections, authentications and encryption mechanisms. Another possibility available is the use of voting systems, for example 2oo4 systems as used in functional safety architectures to overcome the influence of a sensor’s mean time to failure (MTTF) on the probability of failure on demand (PFD), a specification that is required to meet a safety integrity level (SIL).
Input / output (I/O) is the part of the ICS that feeds the process controllers, safety controllers and PLCs with the process values measured by the sensors in the field. Flows, pressures, temperatures, levels are measured using the sensors, these sensors provide a value to the controllers using I/O cards (or at least that is the traditional way, we discuss other solutions later), this was originally an analog signal (e.g. 1 – 5V or 4-20 mA) and later a digital signal, or in the case of HART a hybrid solution where the digital signal is superimposed on the analog signal.
The sensors are connected through two wires with the I/O module / card. Generally there are marshaling panels and junction boxes used to connect all the wires. In classic I/O, an I/O module also had a fixed function, for example an analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, or counter input function. Sometimes special electronic auxiliary cards were used to further condition the signals such as adding a time delay on an analog output to control the valves travel rate. But also when much of this was replaced with digital communication the overall architecture didn’t change that much. A controller, had I/O cards (often multiple racks of I/O cards connected to an internal bus) and I/O cards connected to the field equipment. A further extension was the development of remote I/O to better support systems that are very dispersed. A new development in today’s systems is the use of I/O cards that have a configurable function, the same card can be configured as an analog output, a digital input, or analog input. This flexibility created major project savings, but of course like any function can also become a potential target. Just like the travel rate became a potential target when we replaced the analog auxiliary cards based on RC circuitry with a digital function that could be configured.
From a cyber security point of view, the sensors and actuators have a small exposure in this I/O architecture, apart from any physical exposure in the field where they could be accessed with handheld equipment. Today, many plants still have this type of I/O, which I would consider secure from a cyber security perspective. The attacker would need to breach the control network and the controller to reach the sensor. If this would happen the loss of control over the process controller would be of more importance than the security of the sensor.
However the business required, for both reasons of safety and cost, that the sensors could be managed centrally. Maintenance personnel would not have to do their work within the hazardous areas of the plant, but could do their work from their safe offices. The centralization additionally added efficiency and improved documentation to the maintenance process. So a connection was required between a central instrument asset management system (IAMS) and the field equipment to realize this function. There are in principle two paths possible for such a connection, either through an interface between the IAMS function and the controller over the network or a dedicated interface between the IAMS and the field equipment. If we take the HART protocol as example, the connection through the controller is called HART pass-through. The HART enabled I/O card has a HART master function that accepts and processes HART command messages that are send from the IAMS to the controller, which passes it on to the I/O card for execution. However for this to work the controller should either support the HART IP protocol or embed the HART messages in its vendor proprietary protocol. In most cases controllers accept only the proprietary vendor protocols, where PLCs often support the HART-IP protocol for managing field equipment. But the older generation process controllers, safety controllers, and PLCs doesn’t support the HART-IP protocol so a dedicated interface became a requirement. In the next diagram I show these two architectures in figure 2.
The A architecture on the right of the diagram shows the connection over the control network segment between the controller and the IAMS, the traffic in this architecture is exposed if it is not using encryption. So if an attacker can intercept and modify this traffic he has the potential to modify the sensor configuration by issuing HART commands. Also when an attacker would get access to the IAMS it becomes possible to make modifications.
However most controllers support a write enable / disable mechanism that prevents modifications to the sensor. So from a security point of view we have to enforce that this parameter is in the disable setting. Changing this setting is logged, so can be potentially monitored and alerted on. Of course there are some complications around the write disable setting which have to do with the use of what are called Device Type Managers (DTM) which would fill a whole new blog. But in general we can say if we protect the IAMS, the traffic between IAMS and controller, and enforce this write disable switch the sensors are secure. If an attacker would be able to exploit any of these vulnerabilities we are in bigger trouble than having less cyber resilient field equipment.
The B architecture on the left side of figure 2 is a different story. In this architecture a HART multiplexer is used to make a connection with the sensors and actuators. In principle there are two types of HART multiplexers in use, with slightly different cyber security characteristics. We have HART multiplexers that use the serial RS 485 technology allowing for various multi-drop connections with other multiplexers (number 1 in figure 2), and we have HART multiplexers that directly connect to the Ethernet (number 2 in figure 2).
Let’s start with the HART multiplexers making use of RS 485. There are two options to connect these with the IAMS, a direct connection using an RS 485 interface card in the IAMS server or by using a protocol converter that connects to the Ethernet in combination with the configuration of a virtual COM port in the IAMS server. When we have a direct serial link the exposure is primarily the exposure of the IAMS server, when we use the option with the protocol converter the HART IP traffic is exposed on the control network. However if we select the correct protocol converter, and configure it correctly, we can secure this with encryption that also provides us a level of authentication. If this architecture is correctly implemented then security of the sensor depends on security of the protocol converter and the IAMS. An important security control we miss in this architecture is the write protection parameter. This can be compensated by making use of tamper proof field equipment, this type of equipment has a physical dip switch on the instrument providing a write disable function. The new version of the IEC 61511 also suggests this control for safety related field equipment that can be accessed remotely.
The other type of HART multiplexer with a direct Ethernet interface is more problematic to secure. These multiplexers typically use a communication DTM. Without going into an in depth discussion on DTMs and how to secure the use of device type managers, there are always two DTMs. One DTM communicating with the field device understanding all the functions provided by the field device, and a communication DTM that controls the connection with the field device. A vendor of a HART multiplexer making use of an Ethernet interface typically also provides a communication DTM to communicate with the multiplexer. This DTM is software (a .net module) that runs into what is called an FDT (Field Device Tool), a container that executes the various DTMs supporting the different field devices. Each manufacturer of a field device provides a DTM (called a Device DTM) that controls the functionality available for the IAMS or other control system components that need to communicate with the sensor. The main exposure in this architecture is created by the Communication DTM, frequently the communication DTM doesn’t properly secure the traffic. Often encryption is missing, so exposing the HART command messages to modifications, and also authentication is missing allowing rogue connections with the HART multiplexer. Additionally there is often no hash code check on the DTM modules in the IAMS, allowing the DTM to be replaced by a Trojan adding some malicious functionality. The use of HART multiplexers does expose the sensors and adds additional vulnerabilities we need to address to the system. Unfortunately we see that some IIoT solutions are making use of this same HART multiplexer mechanism to collect the process values to send them into the cloud for analysis. If not properly implemented, and security assessments frequently conclude this, sensor integrity can be at risk in these cases.
Systems using the traditional I/O modules are costly because of all the wiring, so bus type systems were developed such as Foundation Field bus and Profibus. Additionally sensors and actuators gained processing power, this allowed for architectures where the field equipment could communicate and implement control strategies at field device level (level 0). Foundation Fieldbus (FF) supports this functionality for the field equipment. Just like with the I/O architecture we have two different architectures that pose different security challenges. I start the discussion with the two different FF architectures used in ICS.
Architecture A in figure 3 is the most straight forward, we have a controller with an a Foundation Fieldbus (FF) interface card that connects to the H1 token bus of FF. The field devices are connected to the bus using junction boxes and there is a power source for the field equipment. Control can take place either in the controller making use of the field devices or of field devices connected to its regular I/O. All equipment on the control network needs to communicate with the controller and its I/O and interface cards for sampling data or making modifications.
DTMs are not supported for FF, the IAMS makes use of device descriptor files that describe a field device in the electronic device descriptor language (EDDL). No active code is required, like we had with the HART solution when we used DTMs, the HART protocol is not used to communicate with the field equipment.
Also the HART solution in figure 2 supports device descriptor files, this was the traditional way of communicating with a HART field device, however this method offers less functionality (e.g. missing graphic capabilities) in comparison with DTMs. So the DTM capabilities became more popular, also the Ethernet connected HART multiplexer required the use of a communication DTM.
In architecture A the field device is shielded by the controller, the field device may be vulnerable but the attacker would need to breach the nodes connected to the control network before he / she can attempt to exploit a vulnerability in the field equipment. If an attacker would be able to do this the plant would already be in big trouble. So the exposed parts are the assets connected to the control network and the channels flowing in the control network, not so much the field equipment. Weakest vulnerability are most often the channels lacking secure communication that implements authentication and encryption.
In architecture B we have a different architecture, here the control system and IAMS interface with the FF equipment through a gateway device. The idea here is that all critical control takes place locally on the H1 bus. But if required also the controller function can make use of the field equipment data through the gateway. Management of the field equipment through the IAMS would be similar as in architecture A, however now using the gateway.
The exposure in this architecture (B) is higher the moment the control loops would depend on traffic passing the control network. This should be avoided for critical control loops. Next to the channel exposure, the gateway asset is the primary defense for access to the field equipment. It depends on the capabilities to authenticate traffic and the overall network segmentation how strong this defense is. In general architecture A offers more resilience against a cyber attack than architecture B. From a functional point of view architecture B offers several benefits over architecture A.
There are many other bus systems in use such as for example Devicebus, Sensorbus, AS-i bus, and Profibus. Depending on the vendor and regional factors their popularity differs. To limit the length of the blog I pick one and end with a discussion on Profibus (PROcess FieldBUS), which is an originally German standard that is frequently used within Europe. Field buses were developed to reduce point to point wiring between I/O cards and the field devices. Their primary difference between the available solutions is the way they communicate. For example, Sensorbus communicates at bit level for instance with proximity switches, buttons, motor starters, etc. Devicebus allows for communication in the byte range (8 bytes max per message), a bus system used when for example diagnostic information is required or larger amounts of data need to be exchanged. The protocol is typically used for discrete sensors and actuators.
Profibus has several applications, there is for example Profibus DP, short for Decentralized Peripherals, this is an RS 485 based protocol. Profibus DP is primarily used in the discrete manufacturing industry. Profibus PA, short for Process Automation, is a master / slave protocol developed to communicate with smart sensors. It supports such features as floating point values in the messages, it is similar to Foundation Fieldbus with an important difference that the protocol doesn’t support control at the bus level. So when we need to implement a control loop, the control algorithm runs at controller level where in FF it can run at fieldbus level.
Similar to the FF architectures, also for the Profibus (PB) architectures we have the choice between an interface directly with a controller (architecture A) or a gateway interface with the control network (architecture B). An important difference here is that contrary to the FF functionality, in a PB system there can’t be any local control. So we can collect data from the sensors and actuators and we can send data.
Because we don’t have local control, the traffic to the field devices and therefore all control functionality is now exposed to the network. To reduce this exposure often a micro firewall is added so the Profibus gateway can directly communicate with the controller without its traffic being exposed.
In architecture A the field devices are again shielded from a direct attack by the controller, in architecture B it is the gateway that shields the field devices but the traffic is exposed. Architecture C solves this issue by adding the micro firewall which shields the traffic between controller and field equipment. Though architecture B is vulnerable, there are proper solutions available and in use to solve this. So this architecture should be avoided.
Never the less also in these architectures the exposure of the field equipment is primarily indirectly through the control network, and when an attacker gains access to this network no direct access to the field equipment should be possible.
So far we didn’t discuss IIoT for the FF and PB architectures. We mentioned a solution when we discussed the HART architecture, where we saw a server was added to the system that used the HART IP protocol to collect the data from the field equipment, similar architectures exist for both Foundation Fieldbus and Profibus where a direct connection to the field bus is created to collect data. In these cases the exposure of the field equipment directly depends on a server that either has a direct or indirect connection with an external network. This type of connectivity must be carefully examined for which cyber security hazards exist, what are the attack scenarios, what are the vulnerabilities exploited and what are the potential consequences and what is the estimated risk. Based on this analysis we can decide on how to best protect these architectures, and determine which security controls contribute most to reducing the risk.
Summary and conclusions
Are the sensors not sufficiently secure? In my opinion this is not the case for the refining, chemical, and oil and gas industry. I didn’t discuss in this blog SCADA and power systems, but so far never encountered situations that differed much from the discussed architectures. Field devices are seldom directly exposed, with exception of the wireless sensors we didn’t discuss and the special actuators that have a local field unit to control the actuators. Especially the last category has several cyber security hazards that need to be addressed , but it is a small category of very special actuators. I admit that sensors today have almost no protection mechanisms, with the exception of the tamper proof sensors, ISA 100 and WirelessHART sensors, but because the exposure is limited I don’t see it as the most important security issue we have in OT systems. Access to the control network reducing exposure through hardening of the computer equipment, enforcing least privilege for users and control functions is far more effective than replacing sensors for more secure devices. A point of concern are the IIoT solutions available today, these solutions increase the exposure of the field devices much more and not all solutions presented seem to offer an appropriate level of protection.
Author: Sinclair Koelemij
Date: May 23, 202